Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean

Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean – The Tasmanian Current carries warm, salty waters from the East Australian Current of the Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean. Its waters merge with other currents, but change little until they finally reach the Atlantic Ocean. Credit: ZweiZahn, CC BY-SA 4.0

On a planet largely covered by water, ocean currents have a wide range of effects, from replenishing the nutrients that sustain ocean life to influencing coastal climates. However, these current networks are not stable, and any significant current changes can affect conditions around the world.

Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean

Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean

The Tasman Current (TL) is a branch of the largest network of currents operating in the Southern Hemisphere at medium water depths. It moves westward between the easterly current that surrounds southern Australia and Antarctica, then enters the Indian Ocean to join other waters that sink around the Cape of Good Hope and exit into the Atlantic Ocean. TL water accounts for almost half of the water that flows around the Cape of Good Hope, making it an important link between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.

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In a recent study, Christensen et al. examined both sediment samples and carbon isotopes from regional ocean floor drilling sites to gain a better understanding of the origin and early impact of the TL. They found that 7 million years ago, Australia moved north enough to allow the westerly current to flow between the continent and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

At the same time, global climate and Earth’s ocean patterns were changing, and the TL was the missing link that led to the modern ocean circulation. The launch of the TL provided a new pathway for warm, salty Pacific waters to return to the North Atlantic, but to intermediate depths. The study was based on records recovered by an older generation of ocean drilling techniques. New cores that allow higher resolution records are needed to fully understand the impact of this new current on past oceans and climates.

Scientists predict that the flow of TL will increase over time. By determining the current’s history and beginning to study its effects, experts can predict its future effects on climate and ocean patterns. (

Citation: Thompson, E. (2021), History Present: Exploring the Past of the Tasman Drain, , 102, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021EO210612. Published in 2021 November 17 Text © 2021. AGU. Images are copyright CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 Unless otherwise noted. Any reuse without express permission of the copyright holder is prohibited… Home » News & Events » News & Events » Deepest parts of Indian and Southern Ocean discovered

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As part of the Five Deeps Expedition team, researchers explored in detail the deepest parts of the Java and South Sandwich trenches.

Map showing the locations of the deepest points (red dots) in each of the world’s five oceans (Atlantic, Southern, Indian, Pacific and Arctic). Global bathymetry from the Global Synthesis of Multiresolution Topography (GMRT).

New seabed surveys reveal the deepest parts of the Indian and Southern oceans for the first time. As part of the Five Deeps Expedition team, scientists from Caladan Oceanic LLC and the British Geological Survey explored in detail the deepest parts of the Java and South Sandwich trenches.

Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean

The data, published in the Geoscience Data Journal, shows the deepest point in the Indian Ocean at 7,187 meters in the Java Trench and the deepest point in the Southern Ocean at 7,432 meters in the South Sandwich Trench.

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Before the Five Depths Expedition (FDE), the deepest parts of some oceans were fairly well known, such as the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, but others had several “depths” disputed by several claimants as the deepest point in that ocean.

Seafloor, 61 percent of which covered new cover in areas never before explored, and about 30 percent came from some of the deepest ocean trenches and fault zones. © UKRI

Until now, high-resolution data for the Indian and Southern Oceans have been lacking, and there has been considerable uncertainty about the exact location of the deepest point, even precise depth measurements.

Located north of the Antarctic continent, the South Sandwich Trench extends into both the Southern and Atlantic oceans. It was not thoroughly explored before the FDE mission and is the only Hadal low-level zone (deeper than 6000 meters) in the world. The FDE survey provided the most accurate map of the South Sandwich Trench to date using a state-of-the-art multi-beam sonar system. New research has shown that the deepest point of the trench is the 8,265-meter Meteorite Depth, located in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The newly named Factor Depth at the southern end of the trench is 7,432 meters deep.

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Marine geologist Heather Stewart recounts her experiences on the Five Deeps Expedition, which visited all five of the world’s deepest oceans. © UKRI.

The length of the Java trench, located in the east of the Indian Ocean, is more than 4000 kilometers. In April 2019, FDE made the first manned descent to the absolute bottom of the trench (7187 m). In addition, the deepest dive of the mission was carried out by Professor Alan Jamieson, a British citizen who was also the first British person to land in the Handal Zone. Since then, Professor Jamieson and his British colleague John Ramsay have broken this record with the FDE, descending into the deepest parts of the Mariana Trench.

All three auxiliary free-landing systems are equipped with special sensors that record data both when descending to the seabed and when returning to the ship. These data were used to calculate full ocean depth sound speed profiles to correct the multibeam bathymetry data. Most open sea missions do not have the time or technology to send these sensors to the seabed, so relying on sound speed models rather than direct measurements makes this project unique.

Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean

The area first recorded during the FDE is roughly the size of Finland.

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“The Global Five Depths mission gave us a unique opportunity to identify some of the world’s most remote and deepest locations and confirm those depths with measurements collected by submarines and surface support vessels.” “Access to state-of-the-art full-ocean depth technology allowed us to map an area equivalent to mainland France in just 10 months. About 61 percent of the places we visit have never been mapped using modern technology. Cassandra Bongiovanni, FDE’s senior hydrographic researcher and lead author of the study. “Initiatives like Five Deep are filling knowledge gaps and revealing the seascape of large underwater features such as sinkholes for the first time. Collecting detailed bathymetry data allows us to better understand past and present processes and explore the relationships between the geology and biodiversity of these ultra-deep environments. Heather Stewart, a marine geologist at the British Geological Survey based at the Lyell Center in Edinburgh and co-author of the study.

Before the Five Depths expedition, Heather Stewart and Alan Jamieson reviewed and evaluated the best-resolution bathymetric datasets and historical expeditions to ask: Do we know the deepest parts of our oceans?

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In 2018, the Five Depths Expedition (FDE) launched a privately funded one-year round-the-world expedition to complete a two-person ocean dive at the deepest point in each of the world’s five oceans (the Atlantic). , South, Indian, Pacific and Arctic). FDE presented an unprecedented opportunity to contribute to the Seabed 2030 initiative (a joint project between the Nippon Foundation and GEBCO), which will collect all available bathymetric data by 2030. would create the definitive map of the world’s seabed.

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The deepest areas of each ocean were recorded using the latest generation full-ocean depth Kongsberg EM 124 multi-beam sonar.

As part of the overall mission of the “Five Deeps” mission and with the aim of definitely finding the deepest point of the Indian, Pacific and Southern oceans, other places considered to be the deepest possible places were also visited.

This study confirmed that the Horizon Depth in the Tonga Trench is the second deepest point in the Pacific Ocean (10,816 ± 16 m), while the Dordrecht Depth in the Diamantina Fault Zone is not the deepest point in the Indian Ocean (7,019 ± 17 m). ) and although Meteor Deep is the deepest point of the South Sandwich Trench (8265 ± 13 m) according to the Antarctic Treaty and International Hydrographic Organization guidelines, it is in Atlantic waters, not the Southern Ocean. Do you want to climb from the top of the highest mountain on earth? First, you will board a deep-sea submarine and descend to the bottom of the sea, approximately 4 miles below the surface of the Pacific Ocean.

Where The Atlantic Ocean Meets The Pacific Ocean

Charts showing satellite images, bathymetric data of the western Atlantic basin, and ocean floor features. (Photo: National Environmental Satellite and Information Service)

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