Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity

Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity – Which of these two atoms has the least affinity for electrons? a) Ca, K b) I, F c) Li, Ra I don’t know what electronic affinity I can buy other element

Electron affinity (EA) indicates how much energy is released when a neutral atom in the gas phase acquires an electron from an ion.

Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity

Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity

So when you want to compare two factors of the same period, the right EA will be larger. For two in the same circle, the one closer to the top will have a larger EA.

Present Form Of The Periodic Table And Periodic Trends

Electron affinity is the ability to attract an electron to the outer shell of an atom, either to form a 1-ion or to form a negative ion, gr. 2- etc.

The ability to form is increased by an increased nuclear charge (that is, more protons in the nucleus) and a less dense inner shell that provides protection. N.B. These two factors also affect the smaller radii, so the smaller radii have an affinity for electrons.

As you move from left to right through this period, electron affinity increases (all shells, protons) and decreases further up (more shells and larger radii due to increased number of protons).

Because the electronic structure is associated with the formation of negative ions, it is unusual to consider them as metals. I has an electron affinity of -295kJ/mol, compared to -328kJ/mol for F, so F also has an exothermic affinity for the first electron.) In the gas phase, an energy change occurs when an electron binds to a neutral atom. Simply put, it is a measure of the average ability of a neutral atom to gain electrons. A gas phase atom (not a liquid or solid) is used because the energy of an atom is not affected by neighboring atoms. The most common unit of electron affinity is kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol) or electronvolts (eV). Electron affinity also applies to molecules in some cases.

Chemical Scissor–mediated Structural Editing Of Layered Transition Metal Carbides

In 1934, Robert S. Mulliken used electron affinity to list the electron-negativity scale of atoms of the periodic table. Electron chemical potential and chemical hardness are also used in the principle of electron affinity. An atom with a more positive electron affinity than another atom is an electron acceptor, and an atom with a less positive value is an electron donor.

Atoms gain or lose energy when they gain or lose electrons or participate in chemical reactions. The sign of the energy change depends on whether an electron is added or removed. See what you want to change the sign (Δ

For most atoms in the periodic table, electron affinity is exothermic except for the noble gases. Basically, it requires additional electronic energy. Thus, for more atoms,

Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity

Is negative. The noble gas atom is now stable, so it draws energy to capture another electron. For noble gases, electron capture is endothermic.

Solved Hq7.46 Homework • Answered Which Element Has The Most

Instead of taking electrons from neutral atoms. The energy values ​​are equivalent but of opposite sign.

Like electronegativity, ionization energy, atomic or ionic radius, and metallic properties, electrons show trends in the periodic table. Unlike some of these other properties, electron affinity has many properties.

The concepts of electron affinity and electrical conductivity are related but not the same. That is, both measure the ability of an atom to attract electrons. However, electron affinity is the change in energy of a neutral gas atom after it acquires an electron, while electronegativity is how easily an atom attracts a pair of electrons to form a chemical bond. These two values ​​have different units and slightly different periodic table trends.

Halogens in general accept electrons easily and have a high electron affinity. The element with the highest electron affinity is chlorine, which has a value of 349 kJ/mol. Chlorine is a stable octet when it holds an electron.

Metallic Character Trend On The Periodic Table

Chlorine has a higher electron density than fluorine because the fluorine atom is smaller. Chlorine has an outer electron shell, so its atoms readily accept electrons. In other words, the electron shell has less electron-electron repulsion.

Most metals have electron affinity values. Nobelium is the element with the lowest electron affinity (-223 kJ/mol). Noble atoms lose electrons easily, but it is not thermodynamically favorable to force another electron into an already large atom. All the electrons present act as a shield against the positive charge in the atomic nucleus.

Usually the maps show the first email affinities. This is the energy change by adding the first electron to the neutral atom. For most elements, this process is exothermic. On the other hand, the force of change of adding another electron is the affinity value of the second electron. Usually, this requires more energy than atomic utilities. Most secondary electron affinity values ​​reflect endothermic processes.

Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity

Thus, if the first electron affinity value is positive, the second electron affinity value is usually negative. If you use other symbols, the first electron affinity is negative, and the second electron affinity is positive. Electron affinity is defined as the amount of energy released per mass when an electron is added to a neutral atom. The opposite is ionization force

Post Transition Metal

Electron affinity is generally difficult to determine. But this happens in the case of atoms whose molecules are in a gaseous state. This is because in the gas state the atoms are quite separated, and their energies are not affected by other atoms. The Born-Haber circle is used indirectly to determine its value. Electron affinity is denoted by the symbol EA and the energy unit is kJ/mol. has

When an electron approaches a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus attracts it. A negative ion becomes an atom or ion. As a result, energy is released in this process, and the process is exothermic. The stronger it is drawn, the more strongly it is released. Because the force is released, the electron affinity becomes negative. Higher values ​​indicate stable negative ions.

Example: When an electron is added to a neutral chlorine atom, it becomes a chloride (Cl-)ion. The energy released is 349 kJ/mol.

Elements in the periodic table show a certain trend in electron affinity based on their ability to accept electrons.

Answered: Arrange These Elements According To…

Over time, the atomic number of an element gradually increases from left to right. As a result, the number of protons increases and the nuclear charge increases. This means that when an electron approaches an atom, it experiences a strong electrostatic force. When an atom is converted into an ion, a large amount of energy is released. Therefore, electron values ​​are high in affinity. Therefore, as shown in the figure above, the electron affinity increases from left to right over time.

The atomic number increases sharply from the top to the bottom in the circle. As a result, electrons occupy higher valence orbitals further away from the nucleus. These outer electrons are shielded from the inner electrons and feel a weak electrostatic charge from the nucleus. When an electron is attached to the valence shell of a neutral atom, it is attracted by a weak force. Therefore, the production force will be smaller. Therefore, the electron affinity decreases significantly. In other words, the electron affinity increases from the bottom to the top in the group as shown in the figure above.

This trend indicates that the nonmetals and halogens on the right side of the periodic table have a greater electron affinity than the metals on the left side of the periodic table. This is because nonmetals and halogens have nearly full valence shells and need more electrons to complete their octets. Moreover, they have smaller atomic radii than the corresponding metals of the same period. Therefore, they can easily accept electrons and release a large amount of energy.

Which Element Has The Highest Electron Affinity

In contrast, metals have fewer protons than nonmetals and halogens. A dropped nuclear charge cannot attract an electron immediately approaching. Therefore, metals have low electron affinity. They prefer to donate electrons and absorb energy in the process.

Atomic Radius Of Elements

Consider the position of oxygen and fluorine in the periodic table. Both the elements sulfur and chlorine are higher. However, oxygen (-142 kJ/mol) and fluorine (-328 kJ/mol) have lower electron affinities than sulfur (-200 kJ/mol) and chlorine (-349 kJ/mol). This is because the fluorine and oxygen atoms are so small that the electron orbital is packed into a small space. When a new electron approaches one of these atoms, it is repelled by the electron cloud. These repulsions make the approaching electron less attractive to the atom and reduce the energy released.

The electron configuration of an atom determines whether the atom can achieve stability by donating or accepting electrons. Atoms with a stable electron configuration have less tendency to attract electrons. These atoms include fully filled shells, and partially filled or fully filled valence shells. They have low electron affinity (almost none). Examples include:

Electronic and

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